2011년 1월 24일 월요일

Handan Gogi


Introductory Notes

  1. The old records of Korean history can be found in Samguk-Yusa, which is written by Il-Yeon, however it is hard to be obtained to read the book. Therefore, this history book is compiled from the Samseong-GiDangun-Segi,Bukbuyeo-Gi and Taebae-Ilsa, and it is titled Hwandan-gogi.
  2. There are two different kinds of Samseong-Gi, which are not complete. The first volume of Samseong-Gi is edited by Am-Ro Ahn, and the second volume of Samseong-Gi is edited by Joong-dong Won.
  3. Dangun-Segi is edited by an old person in the Heunghaeng village, and is transmitted by Jeon-Gong Moon. This book is obtained from Mr. Baek, who has passed the primary state examination. His family originally has many traditional books.
  4. Bukbuyeo-Gi is edited by Beomjang who lives in Hyoo-Ae. This book is obtained from Mr Yi at the village of Sakju Yidong , who has passed the primary state examination. The original title of Bukbuyeo-Gi is the Bound Volume of Dangun-Segi, which contains the history of Bukbuyeo and Ancient Joseon. However, the content of the Bound Volume of Dangun-segi about Ancient Joseon is exactly same with the Dangun-Segi that is edited by an old person in the Heunghaeng village.
  5. Taebaek-Ilsa is edited by Maek Yi, and this book has kept by Ki Yi.
  6. Hwandan-gogi is supervised by Ki Yi, and I transcribe it very carefully. In addition, Beom-Do Hong and Dong-Jin Oh support financially for print.

Record of Three Saints1

The First Volume of Three Saints’ Record

Edited by Am-Ro Ahn

The establishment of the Hwan nation23 is the oldest. In ancient times, the god had lived in the heaven of Sabaekryeok4, and he had become the bright god by himself. Therefore, a bright light shined on the universe, and enlightenment gave birth to all creation. He had lived for a long time with pleasures of life. He was very energetic and behaved naturally. His appearance could not be seen, and he conducted everything without knowing. At one time, eight hundreds children descended around Heuksoo5 and Baeksan6, and the god supervised the people in heaven. The god taught the methods to strike fire and cook foods. This nation is called the Hwan nation, and the god is called Hwanin7 orAhnpagyun. There had been seven Hwanins, but the chronicle of them is not known.
Thereafter, Hwanwoong8 succeeded to the throne of Hwanins, and supported the thought of the god. He also descended to the around of Baeksan and Heuksoo, and provided a large public square at Cheonggu9. He possessedCheon, Boo and Ihn10, and managed five tasks11 so that the entire people could be enlightened and have maximum welfare. He named the nation as the Baedal12, and the capital city was Shinshi13. He made a sacrifice to heaven at the 21th of every month. When he made a sacrifice, he behaved a restrained way, and cultivated his moral sense. He was married with a woman whose family name of Woong14, and assigned her as an queen consort. He made the manners and cultures of marriage such as the wedding presents of animals’ skin. He made the people engage in farming and exchange their necessities. Thus, many nations brought a tribute, and all birds and animal are pleasant. After that, people thought him as the best god so that the sacrifice to him continued. There had been 18 rulers in the Baedal nation for 1565 yearsAt the end of Baedal, Chiwoo-Cheonwang15 or Jaoji Hwanwoong colonized Cheonggu.
Thereafter, Dangun16 descended to the place that had plentiful birch trees in the mountain Boolham17. He has the virtue of the god and the benignancy of sages, and made a Royal edict to follow the will of heaven. Thus, the people ofGuhwan18 obeyed him so that Dangun was enthroned as a ruler. Dangun named the nation as Joseon (Hereafter, Joseon, which is established by Dangun, will be called the Ancient Joseon19 to differentiate from Joseon that is founded by Seong-Gye Yi at 1335 CE), and the capital city was AsadalDangun could establish peace in the whole country, and ordered Paengwoo to reclaim land, Seongjo to construct the royal palace. He also entrusted agricultural encouragement to Goshi, and made Shinji invent a character. Kiseong was assigned for medical treatment, and Naeul was ordered to manage family registration. Heui are assigned as a fortuneteller, and Woo was made to manage military. Dangun was married with a woman whose family name is Habaek, and assigned her as an empress. He made her manage to raise silkworms, and all people could live with peace. At 425 BCE, the name of Ancient Joseon was changed as a Great Buyeo20, and the capital city were moved to Jangdang. There were five clauses of a law. It was encouraged to sacrifice to Heaven, and raise silkworms. People could travel to everywhere with free. There was no unfair accusation, and the nation was governed with the help of the people. All men had a job, and all families could live comfortably. There was no bandit in mountains, and no man and woman hungered. Dangun had governed Ancient Joseon from 2333 BCE. There had been 47 rulers in Ancient Joseon for 2096 years.
At 239 BCE, Haemosoo21 could take a large military power in the mountain of Woongshim.
At 194 BCE, Wiman22 stole the land around the west boundary, but the Joon23 Dangun in Beonhan24 could not fight against him. Thus, Joon fled away using a ship. After that, most people of Three Han25 had lived in the south ofHansoo26. At one time, however, many heroes raised volunteers at the east of Bohei Sea. At 108 BCE, the king of Wu in Han dynasty destroyed Woogeo27Kodoomak28, who came from the west of Amrok, also invoked volunteers, and called himself Dangun.
At 86 BCE, the capital city of Bukbuyeo was occupied, and the name of the nation was changed as Dongmyoung29, which had been the ancient territory of Silla.
In the spring at 58 BCE, Kochoomo30, who was a son of Heaven, conquered Bukbuyeo. He recovered the ancient rules of Dangun, and had a sacrifice to Haemosoo. Thus, Kochoomo assigned Haemosoo to the originator of his nation, and he named his nation as Koguryeo31. He utilizes an era name of his nation as Damool32.

The Second Volume of Three Saints’ Record

Edited by Am-Ro Ahn

The first ancestor of humankind is called Naban. He met Aman at Aishita, they were married according to the teaching of the Heaven. All of Guhwan was the descendants of the two.
There was the Hwan nation, where all people lived with wealthy. At the beginning, Hwanin perceived the truth at the top of the Heaven mountain33, so he had lived for a long time without any disease. He enlightened all people taking Heaven’s place, and there were no war because of military power. All people worked hard, and no one shivered with cold. After him, there had been six Hwanins. The second is Hyukseo Hwanin, the third is Goshiri Hwanin, the fourth is Joowooyang Hwanin, the fifth is Seokje-im Hwanin, the sixth is Goo-eulli Hwanin, and the seventh is Jiwiri Hwanin. The seventh Hwanin is also called as Danin.
An old record says that there was the nation of Hwanin at the base of the Panaryoo mountain34. The land of the nation was so large that the length from the north to south was 50,000 ree35, and the length from the east to west was 20,000 ree. It was a united nation called as the Hwan Nation, and the twelve confederacies were Biri-guk, Yangwoon-guk, Gumak-hwanguk, Guda-Cheonguk, Irun-guk, Wooroo-guk or Pila-guk, Gaekhyung-hwanguk,Gumo-aekguk, Maeguyeo-guk or Jikgu-daguk, Sanab-aguk, Sunbi-yiguk or Shiwi-guk or Tongo-saguk, and Soomilyi-guk. There had been seven rulers. It had continued for 3,301 years or 63,182 years, but it is not sure which continuation year is correct.
At the end of Hwan nationHwanin recognized that Samwi and Taebaek36 were a blessed place enough to govern the nation with maximum benefit of humanity. Thus, he asked Five Ministers37 who could be a qualified person of a ruler. The Five Ministers answered the question that Hwanwoong was brave and wise enough to change the world based on the willingness of Heaven, so it was better make him govern the land. The Hwanin gave Cheon, Boo and Ihn to Hwanwoong, and ordered him to establish a nation with 3,000 people. He also ordered Hwanwoong to teach the people with good intensions so that all people should respect Hwanwoong.
At that time, there was a person named Bango who liked extraordinary magic. He asked Hwanin to go with Hwanwoong, so Hwanin permitted it. Eventually, Bango packed treasure and property, and reached the cave of Nabrim inMountain Samwi with Gonggong, Yooso, Yoomyo and Yoosoo. After he became a monarch, he is called as Bandogahan38.
Hereupon, Hwanwoong descended to the place that had plentiful birch trees at top of the Taebaek Mountain with 3000 number of people. After that, Hwanwoong was called Hwanwoong-Cheonwang39He ordered Poongbaek,Woosa and Woonsa to supervise agriculture, life, punishment, disease, goodness and badness. As a whole, he managed the 360 kinds of tasks for enlightenment so that all people in the nation could live with well-being.
At one time, the tribe of Woong neighbored to the tribe of Beom. The Woong tribe prayed to Hwanwoong that they became the people who revered Heaven. Thus, Hwanwoong answered the equation that he would teach the method to your tribe. At last, He changed the mind and the body of them. He gave a bundle of mugwort and five cloves of garlic to the tribe of Woong, and the mugwort and the garlic were made by Heaven for peaceful mind. So, Hwanwoong said to them cautiously “Your appearance shall be changed into a genuine human being if you eat these for 100 days and are not exposed to sunlight.” Therefore, the two tribes of Woong and Beom were trying to eat only the two foods. The tribe of Woong could have an appearance of a genuine human being because they adhered to the agreement with Hwanwoong, however the tribe of Beom could not keep the promise with Hwanwoong because they were lazy and impatient. The two tribes were so different in their characteristics. One of the women in the Woong tribe could not be married, so she prayed seriously to be pregnant under a birch tree. So, Hwanwoong changed himself asHwan40, and then was married with the woman. After that, the woman became pregnant, and then gave birth to sons. The descendants of the woman became the people of heaven.
Hwanwoong-Cheonwang firstly opened heaven, and enlightened the people. Thereafter, Chiwoo-Cheongwang reclaimed land, and mined copper and steel to promote jobs. At that time, Guhwan made Three Gods as the same ancestor, managed their territory, and imposed a penalty by discussing with others, which is called Hwabaek. The nation was so perfect because they pursued knowledge about wisdom and life. Thereafter, the three rulers41 governedGuhwan, and the nation is called as Ancient Joseon.
Milgi42 says that there was an unmanageable strong tribe, which was a cause of anxiety. Hwanwoong taught the tribe, and made a commandment. The people swore an oath to the commandment. At last, he could have a law to impose a penalty to their good and evil, and he secretly made his mind to punish the tribe.
At that time, the names of tribes were different to each other, and the manners and cultures became diverse. The ethnic group who had lived long before was called Beom, and the other ethnic group who had moved to Baedal was called Woong. The tribe of Beom liked to plunder others’ property due to the characteristic of brutality, but the characteristic of Woong tribe was stupid and obstinate so that they could not be harmonized. Even though the two tribes had lived together in the same cave for long time, the two tribes did not help to each other, and were not married with each other. They did not share the same road of life.
There was a queen in the Woong tribe, and she was told that Hwanwoong had a virtue and goodness of god. Thus, she asked him to make Woong tribe revere Heaven by giving a new cave. In the end, Hwanwoong allowed them to be the people of Heaven, and the tribe gave birth to children, and had jobs. However, the Beom race could not repent of their sin, and then Hwanwoong expelled them to Sahae. This is explanation of the origin of Guhwan.
Galgo Hwanwoong43 made the national boundary with Shennong44. After some reigns, Jaoji Hwanwoong became the ruler of the Baedal nation, and he was so brave. His hat was enclosed by copper and steel, and could govern the whole world. He mined and cast metals, and made weapons so that the whole world feared him very much. He was called Chiwoo-Cheongwang because Chiwoo means that thunders and rains change mountains and rivers significantly in common parlance.
Chiwoo-Cheonwang raised the army of heaven at the west of Baedal when he found that the nation of Shennong became weaker. In addition, he sent army from Saekdo45 to Hoedae to attack the nation of Shennong. WhenXuanyuan46 raised the army, Chiwoo-Cheonwang caught him alive in Takrok47, and made him as a vassal. Thereafter, five generals were sent to the west of Baedal, and defeated Diku-Gaoxin48.
At one time, the whole world was divided by three sovereigns. In the north of Takrok, there was a nation of Daehyo. In east of TakrokCangjie49 was a sovereign of a nation. In the west of Takrok, a sovereign was Xuanyuan. They were trying to defeat other countries, but they could not. Xuanyuan was somewhat later than Chiwoo-Cheonwang in raising an army so that he could not defeat Chiwoo-Cheonwang. Thus, he tried to make an allied military army withDaehyo and Cangjie, but he could not because these two nations were subject to Chiwoo-CheonwangDaehyo learned the sexagenary cycle, and Cangjie learned the characters of Budo. So, most of feudal lords are subject toChiwoo-Cheonwang.
Shiji50 written by Sima Qian says as follows; all feudal lords followed Chiwoo’s commands, and Chiwoo was so violent. Thus Xuanyuan governed the nation as a regent when no one could punish Chiwoo. The number of Chiwoo’sbrothers was 81, but all of them had appearances of animals, and spoke the language of human beings. Their foreheads were steel, and their heads were copper. They ate sand, and made OgujangDogeuk and Taeno. Chiwoo is the name of the ancient son of Heaven.

The Chronicle of Baedal

The 1st Hwanwoong was called Hwanwoong-Cheonwang or Keobalhan, and he died at 120 years old after a reign of 94 years.
The 2nd ruler is Keoboolli Hwanwoong, and he died at 102 years old after a reign of 86 years.
The 3rd ruler is Wooyago Hwanwoong, and he died at 135 years old after a reign of 99 years.
The 4th ruler is Mosara Hwanwoong, and he died at 129 years old after a reign of 107 years.
The 5th ruler is Taewooui Hwanwoong, and he died at 115 years old after a reign of 93 years.
The 6th is Dauibal Hwanwoong, and he died at 110 years old after a reign of 98 years.
The 7th is Keoryeon Hwanwoong, and he died at 140 years old after a reign of 81 years.
The 8th is Anbooryeon Hwanwoong, and he died at 94 years old after a reign of 73 years.
The 9th is Yangwoon Hwanwoong, and he died at 139 years old after a reign of 96 years.
The 10th is Galgo Hwanwoong or Dokrohan, and he died at 125 years old after a reign of 10 years.
The 11th is Keoyabal Hwanwoong, and he died at 149 years old after a reign of 92 years.
The 12th is Joomooshin Hwanwoong, and he died at 123 years old after a reign of 105 years.
The 13 is Sawara Hwanwoong, and he died at 100 years old after a reign of 67 years.
The 14th is Jaoji Hwanwoong, and he died at 151 years old after a reign of 109 years. He was also called Chiwoo-Cheongwang, and moved the capital city to Cheonggu.
The 15th is Chiaekteuk Hwanwoong, and he died at 118 years old after a reign of 89 years.
The 16th is Chookdari Hwanwoong, and he died at 99 years old after a reign of 56 years.
The 17th is Hyeokdase Hwanwoong, and he died at 97 years old after a reign of 72 years.
The 18th is Keobuldan Hwanwoong or Danwoong, and he died at 82 years old after a reign of 48 years.■
Record of Dangun
1st Dangun51 Imgeum52 (2333–2241 BCE): An old record says as follows; Dangun’s father is Danwoong, and Dangun’s mother is the queen of Woong tribe. Dangun was born under a birch tree at May 2th 2370 BCE, and everyone obeyed and dreaded his order because he had a virtue of the god.
When Dangun was fourteen years old (2357 BCE), the queen of Woong tribe recognized that he was sacred so that she designated him as the king of the subjective state Dae-eub.
At 2333 BCE (Tangyao was a ruler of ancient China at this time), all people enthroned Dangun as the son of the heavenly emperor at the place of birch trees. Accordingly, the entire Guhwan was united into a nation, and they were thoroughly enlightened by the teachings of Dangun. Hereafter, he was called Dangun-Imgeum. He deceased at 130 years old after he had been the king of the subjective state for 24 years, and had been the heavenly emperor for 93 years.
At 2333 BCE when Dangun, who was the descendant of Shinshi, conducted the affair of the nation, the entire people had been propagated throughout whole mountains and valleys. The people made clothes of grasses without any shoes. At the November 3th 1565 years after from the establishment of the Baedal nation, the godlike man, Dangun, established the nation at the place of birch trees with 800 people, and he became the prime minister of the Five MinistersDangun had a sacrifice to the three gods with the public, and he had the goodness of the god and benevolent spirit. At last, the people of Guhwan followed him sincerely, thought him a God incarnate, and enthroned him as an emperor with the designation name of Dangun-Imgeum because Dangun capably supported the god’s intention, his administration was so dignified, and his thought was very vehement. He recovered all previous law and regulation of Shinshi, set up the capital city to Asadal, and named the nation as the Ancient Joseon.
Dangun made an edict as follows. “There exist not two gates to heaven, but only one gate to heaven. If you only put your spirit on your work, then your spirit can reach heaven. The law of heaven is unique and remains same as before, and the mind of a human being is similarly consistent. Thus, if one knows one’s mind by inspecting the mind of oneself, then he or she can perceive the mind of others. If one teaches others mind to coincide with the law of the god, the teaching can be utilized very well at everywhere in the world.
Your parents and ancestors descended from heaven, and you cannot exist any more without them. Thus, you must support and serve your parents, which are identical with the reverence of heaven, and affect the whole nation. What you support and serve your parents is to give your fealty to the nation and practice filial piety toward your parents. Only if you adhere to this law, you shall escape from a disaster such as the collapse of sky.
Even an animal has a life’s companion, and a worn-out shoe has its pair. Thus, man and woman live peacefully together without a quarrel, a complaint and a jealousy. Moreover, salacious and promiscuous life must be prohibited. Which finger does not feel any pain regardless of their sizes when you bite your ten fingers! The whole nation as well as the whole family shall prosper if each of you does not revile, do love, do not fight and do help the others. Your cattle and horse do share their food with each other. If you do not deprive others of anything, do yield to others, and work together without stealing, the whole nation shall thrive. Look at the tribe of Beom. They are only physically strong, violent and secular so that they become humble. You shall not hurt other people if we do not commit outrages throwing your good temper. Do always love everything with a respecting mind of heaven. You must not insult but help others when you meet someone who is under a dangerous situation. If you do not obey these edicts, Heaven will not help you so that you and your family shall disappear. Heaven will punish you if you make a fire on a rice field, and a rice plant is burnt black. Even though you cover a guilty person, the smell of crime will leak out. You always hold good character with respecting mind. Do not have a wicked mind, do not conceal badness, and do not hide a disaster. Respect Heaven by controlling your mind, and make friends with the entire people. Five Ministers must obey these edicts.”
Hereupon, Dangun ordered Paengwoo to reclaim waste land, Seongjo to construct a royal palace, Goshi to encourage doing farms, Shinji to symbolize objects, Kiseong to offer medical service to the people, Naeul to manage a family register, Heui to take charge of fortune-telling, and Woo to control military affairs. Dangun had a dedication ceremony to the goodness in a west hillside, and then take a woman whose family name is Haebaek as a queen consort.Dangun order her to supervise raising silkworms. Thus, his simple and honest administration made the whole nation abundant and clear.
At 2284 BCE, the people in the nation could not rest comfortably because there was a deluge. Dangun ordered Paengwoo, whose official rank was Poongbaek, to control the floods of large rivers and the landslides of large mountains so that the people in the nation could live very comfortably. The monument was erected in the village of Woosoo.
At 2283 BCE, Dangun ordered his liege Baedal, whose official rank is Woonsa, to construct the castle Samlang, and build the altar for sacrificing to Heaven in the mountain Mari, which corresponds to the altar Chamseong.
At 2267 BCE, Dangun delegated the crown imperial Buroo to the mountain Do for the meeting with the public official Yu. The crown imperial taught the theory of the five elements and the method of water control, and made a new national border so that Yujoo and Youngjoo were acquired as new territory. In addition, Dangun conquered the feudal lords in Hoedae, governed the subjugated land as a satellite nation53 by assigning Yushun54 to supervise the administration of the satellite nation.
At 2241 BCE, when Dangun was in the royal palace named a willow tree, he saw that soil stairs came into being, a forest was never gone, tigers and bears strolled trough the forest, and a goat and a cow were grown in there. He ordered to encourage digging a ditch, making furrows and raising silkworms, and teach fishing so that the people in the nation added the remaining to national finance. There were big events on October in the whole nation, and everyone in the entire nation had a sacrifice to Heaven so that the people in the nation gave a shout of joy. Hereupon, teaching of Dangun covered the entire world so that the people in Tamrang could be taught.
Thereafter, Ancient Joseon became the united nations of which three states were named Han. The Three Han contained the Five Ministers and 64 tribes. On March 15th in this year, the first Dangun-Imgeum passed away inBongjeon, and then he was buried the area from which distance to the palace is about 10 ree. The people in the nation thought as if their parents had died, thus they kept a Dangun’s banner in their house, worshiped to him at every morning and night, thought about him, and never forgot his works. After that, the imperial prince Buroo became a new Dangun55.
2nd Dangun Buroo. 58 years of Reign
At 2240 BCE, Dangun was so benevolent and fortunate that the national financial condition was very good. He managed industries with their people so that no one suffered from hunger and coldness. In spring and fall, he inspected throughout the whole nation and had a sacrifice to Heaven doing the best his ability. He examined the right and wrong of kings in tribes, and decided rewards and punishments with fairness. He also encouraged digging and fixing a ditch, cultivating soil and planning a mulberry tree. Dangun made a new official position to promote learning so that culture had been advanced and his fame had spread throughout the world.
Because Yushun assigned the two villages (Yujoo and Youngjoo) to the territory of Namguk’s neighbor, Dangun sent the troops, and conquered the kings in the two villages. After that, he assigned DongmooDoora and others to the feudal lords of the villages, and commanded officially them for helping the conquest. Since the Baedal nation, the whole people in the nation gathered together, sang a song, praised noble goodness, and strengthened their harmony at every sacrifice to Heaven. A godlike person performed a ceremony to unite the entire nation, which become the laws of three benevolent wizards living in a mountain. The words of the song are as follows.
Oh, what a great benefit of our descendants! We should not forget about it.
Oh, good mind is a big bow. Bad mind is a big target. All of us are big bows. May our minds be consistent like bowstrings!
Oh, all of us become a big bow. May the target be penetrated! Boiled mind is good mind. Snow mind is bad mind.
Oh, every single all of us is a big bow. A united mind will make the Baedal nation glory ever and forever.”
At 2239 BCE, Dangun asked Soryeon and Daeryeon about the way of administration. Before that, Soryeon and Daeryeon they performed a funeral service very well because they had not been lazy for three days, they had not been relaxed for three months, they had been sad and painful for a year, and they had been wetted with sad tears. At that time, a funeral ceremony had been considered to be performed for five months, however it had changed that it was an honor to have a funeral ceremony as long as possible. It was a holy man in the world, and it was like the speed of a mail horse. Daeryeon and Soryeon were famous with their filial duty. Generally, practicing filial piety to one’s parents was a basic for performing one’s love to others and making a benefit for the entire world, thus it was standardized by announcing the whole world.
At 2238 BCE, Dangun commanded the people to wear one's hair in a plait with blue clothes. A volumetric measure of rice and weighting measure were ordered to be standardized, the prices of hemp fabrics and ramie cloth were not different in everywhere, and the people were very comfortable throughout the nation because they did not conceive each other.
At 2229 BCE, fields in the nation were divided for the people, and the title deed for the fields was prepared for the people not to pursue private matters. In addition, Kwigi dedicated a calendar system and a map to Dangun.
At 2183 BCE, There was an eclipse of the sun when Dangun Buroo deceased. The people in the nation seriously lamented Buroo’s death, and it seemed that all animals snarled frantically in a group. After that, all people constructed altars for him selecting the best site in their houses. When they were sacrificing to him, they filled a bowl with soil, and put the bowl on the altar. Someone called the bowl as Buroo’s pot, which was considered as the god of occupation. Others also called it as a perfect edict because Buroo had no flaw in his personality. The prince imperial Gareuk became an emperor of Ancient Joseon.
3rd Dangun Gareuk. 45 years of Reign
At 2182 BCE, Dangun asked Eulboreuk, whose official rank is Samrang, about the way to become an emperor who could rule out the people with the benevolence of the god. Eulboreuk answered the question with very polite manner. “The god can create all things in the universe, and make them so perfect, which is very profound. So, all people believe in and depend on the god. If an emperor rule out the world with virtue and justice, then all people become easily comfortable in their life. So, all people will follow the emperor who gives a mercy to everybody. A godlike emperor is selected by all people in the nation. The people obey the edict of the emperor, and swear before the god at every week. So, a father must be worthy of a father, an emperor must be worthy of an emperor, a teacher must be worthy of a teacher. These laws can also be applied to a son, a vassal and a disciple. Thus, the way of opening the heaven by Shinshi is to know oneself by the teaching of the god, to pursue anything by oneself, and to exist by oneself by empty one’s mind, which implies blessing all people. An emperor as a representative of the god is to bless all people to gain a benefit, to help them not to loose their good mind, and to prevent the people from hurting life by curing all disease and solving all vexation as a representative of all emperors. This also implies to make all people progress toward truth by throw their departed spirit. After that, the people obeyed the edicts of Dangun after 21 days. Thereafter, there were the laws of the god in the government, and the people had followed the laws. These laws were calledKeobalhan, which was provided for all Guhwan.”
At 2181 BCE, manners and customs were not same with each other. There were different dialects in the nations. Even though a hieroglyphic character56 was used to represent what they said, communication was difficult even in a small village where ten families lived, and a letter was also difficult to be understood to each other in a village of which size was about 100 ree. Thus, the Dangun ordered Eulboreuk, whose official rank is Samrang, to invent a character. The character was called Garimto, which is as follows.
At 2180 BCE, Dangun ordered Gogeul, whose official rank is Shinji, to edit the history book of the Baedal nation.
At 2177 BCE, Dangun commanded Saekjeong, who was a provincial government official in Yeolyang57, to move to Yaksoo and be confined to there for a whole life. But, Dangun forgave him to be free for governing a nation. Therefore, Saekjeong became an ancestor of Xiongnu58.
At 2175 BCE, Kanggeo rose in revolt so that Dangun conquered them in Jibaeteuk. On April, Dangun ascended the Boolham Mountain, and watched the emission of smoke from commoner’s houses. Dangun ordered to reduce a tributary payment from the houses where the amounts of smoke were small. After that, the amounts of tributary payments were different from one another.
At 2173 BCE, Ye-eub rebelled in Dojijoo, and Dangun ordered Yeoshoogi to kill the chief whose name is Soshimori. Thereafter, the district was also called Soshimori, which became the Woosoo nation59. Among the descendant ofYe-eub, there was a man named Hyeobyano. He fled toward the sea, and held and defended his own territory in the three islands60 being called himself as a Heavenly king.
At 2138 BCE, Dangun Gareuk deceased, and the prince imperial Osagoo acceded to the throne.
4th Dangun Osagoo. 38 years of Reign
At 2137 BCE, the younger brother of Dangun Osagoo was called Osadal, and Dangun Osagoo assigned him to the king of Molgoli. Someone said that the descendant of Osadal was a Mongolian. On October, Dangun made an inspection of the northern area, and reached the Taebaek Mountain. He found a mysterious medical plant after sacrificing to Three Gods, which was called a ginseng or a medicine from a benevolent wizard. After that, the immortal theory of the benevolent wizard had a strong relation with the collecting and protecting works of a ginseng. Occasionally, someone who found a ginseng said that he had experienced a miracle.
At 2133 BCE, a coin of which shape was like a shellfish with a hole was made. On August, a person from the Xia nation61 visited and dedicated special products to Dangun, and bought new books. On October, the borders between the national capital area and local districts were sculptured in stones, which were notified to the people.
At 2131 BCE, a shipbuilding yard was constructed in the upper stream of Salsoo62.
At 2119 BCE, the king Xiang63 of the Xia nation lost his benevolence from the people of Xia. Thus, Dangun ordered Shikdal to suppress them with three troops, so the whole country obeyed his commands.
At 2100 BCE, Dangun Osagoo passed away, so Goo-eul, whose official rank was one of Yangga64, became an emperor.
5th Dangun Goo-eul16 years of Reign
At 2099 BCE, Dangun ordered to make an altar in the Taebaek Mountain, and sent a messenger for have a sacrificing ceremony.
At 2098 BCE, the entire fields and plains were full of a cloud of desert locusts on May. Dangun made a survey the fields where a cloud of desert locusts swept over, and then prayed Three Gods to remove the locusts. The cloud of desert locusts disappeared after a few days.
At 2096 BCE, an almanac was constructed using the sexagenary cycle.
At 2092 BCE, people form Shindok nation arrived accidentally at a port after drifting.
At 2084 BCE, Dangun visited Jangdang, and had a sacrifice to Heaven in the altar of Three Gods. He also planted the flower of Hwan. On July, Dangun made a progress to the southern area of Ancient Joseon. After Dangunreached Songyang65 across the Poongryu River, he became sick and dead. So, he was buried in the Daebak Mountain66Dalmoon, whose official rank was Wooga67, was selected as the next Dangun.
6th Dangun Dalmoon36 years of Reign
2083 BCE is the first year of reign.
At 2049 BCE, Dangun commanded all kings of tribes to gather in Sangchoon, and made a sacrifice to Heaven. He also ordered to Baalli, whose official rank was Shinji, to make a composition for swearing good behaviors, which is as follows.




The Three Gods were descended to the east of the earth where the sun shines firstly. Hwanin firstly showed his appearance to the world, and his virtue influenced the entire nation with magnanimous and profound. Various gods discussed Hwanwoong to send to the world, and finally he opened the heaven. The entire people in Hoedae were subjugated to Chiwoo since he earned a reputation of his military power in Cheonggu. Thereafter, all nations in the world could not make an even thought of attacked ChiwooDangun influence Guhwan based on the god’s order. The people in Eosoo were brought back to life, and moral influence to them was always innovated as a grass leaf was fluttering in the wind. One who has resentment should not hold a grudge. ” At that time, it was two large countries, 22 small countries and 3,624 villages that paid a tribute to Dangun because of alliance.
At 2048, Dangun Dalmoon deceased, Hanyool, whose official rank was Yangga, acceded to the throne
7th Dangun Hanyool54 years of Reign
2047 BCE is the first year of reign.
At 1994 BCE, Dangun deceased, and Wooseohan became a new Dangun.
8th Dangun Wooseohan8 years of Reign
At BCE 1993, five percents of income were levied as tax according to the new taxation law, and Dangun made the law used throughout the entire nation. A surplus and a deficit were ordered to be supplemented.
At 1992 BCE, because of a bumper harvest, eight ears of rice came into bearing from a rice plant.
At 1990 BCE, Dangun disguised himself as a commoner, and take an inspection of the Xia nation. After that, he changed government organization.
At 1987 BCE, a crow that has three feet flew into the garden of the palace, and the size of its wing was about 1 meter.
At 1986 BCE, Dangun Wooseohan deceased, and the prince imperial Ashool became Dangun of Ancient Joseon.
9th Dangun Ashool35 years of Reign
At 1985 BCE, Dangun was so benevolent that he did not sentence any punishment to the people who had a crime while he said that there would be dew and rain in the land of excrement. Thus, the criminals were reformed morally due to Dangun’s virtue. Thus, all enlightenment and teachings from Dangun spread throughout the nation. On that day, it seemed that two sun68s came up so that observers were like a wide fence.
At 1984 BCE, Woochak, who was a local governor in Cheonhae, attacked the palace with his military coup so that Dangun escaped to Sanchoon, and construct a new palace under the south foot of the Guwal Mountain. Dangunordered Wooji and Wooyool to suppress the rebellion, and killed him. After three years, Dangun could return to the original capital city.
At 1951 BCE, Ashool Dangun passed away, and then Wooga Noeul, who was one of the Five Ministers, was enthroned to the next Dangun.
10th Dangun Noeul59 years of Reign
At 1950 BCE, wild animals were firstly raised into pens in addition to domestic animals
At 1949 BCE, Dangun himself made an inspection tour of the people’s life, and asked them about the level of life. When a royal carriage stayed outside of the palace, many sages were gathered to him.
At 1946 BCE, a government office outside the palace was established to solve the unfair circumstances so that the people who lived very far from the palace were delighted.
At 1935 BCE, a lotus bloomed on the ground where is the distance of 10 ree from the east entrance of the palace, and did not wither so that stones were erected. In a heaven river, the god of turtle went past with a picture that was similar with a yut69 board. Gold was discovered around the coast of Balhae Sea, and its volume was about 70 bushels.
At 1916 BCE, a government office was established to examine the people’s life.
At 1892 BCE, Dangun Naeul deceased, and the prince imperial Dohae was enthrone to Dangun
11th Dangun Dohae. 57 years of Reign
At 1891 BCE, Dangun ordered the Five Ministers to establish the Sacred Place by selecting the outstanding place among twelve mountains. Many birch trees were planted on there, and the largest birch tree was selected. The selected birch tree was considered as the image of Hwanwoong, and many people had sacrifices to the Hwanwoong’s image.
On October, Dangun ordered to construct the huge Palace of Origin, which was very magnificent. In the Origin Palace, the figure of passed Hwanwoong was enshrined, and the aureole around his head was so splendid that it was like a large sun. The halo lighted on the whole universe, and he seated oneself on the flower of Hwan under birch trees, which seemed that the god sat on a circle. The picture of a large circle was drawn and was hung on the wall, and the people called the picture as KeobalhanDangun had behaved himself prudently for four days, and had taught for seven days so that the entire nation seemed to be inspired.
At 1864 BCE, rare and precious articles were exhibited at a place, and the articles were gathered from the entire nation. All the people in the nation competed for providing the valuable items so that the exhibition place was very huge.


To be continued


1 Three saints are HwaninHwanwoong and Dangun. They are considered as the sovereigns from heaven. Hwanin is a founder of the Hwan nationHwanwoong is a founder of the Baedal, and Dangun is a founder is the Ancient Joseon. The names of founders for each nation are also used to represent the designation name of rulers.
2 Hwan is originally used to represent the sun. At ancient times, Hwan indicated a representative person of the sun or a race who considers themselves as the descendant of the sun. Therefore, the Hwan nation means the state constituted with the sons of Heaven.The pronunciation of Han is currently used to represent the Korean race, which is very similar as the pronunciation of Hwan. It is considered that the pronunciation of Hwan have been changed as Han.
3 The Hwan nation had continued from 7198 BCE to 3898 BCE.
4 Sabaekryeok is thought as Siberia in Russia.
5 Heuksoo is considered as Amur River in China or Baikal Lake in Russia.
6 Baeksan is considered as the mountain Baekdu at North Korea.
7 Hwanin is the founder of the Hwan nation, but is also used to represent the rulers in the Hwan nation. At that time, the people consider themselves as the son of Heaven, and called themselves “Hwan,” and benignant sovereigns were called “In.” So, Hwaninmeans a benignant sovereign of the sons of Heaven.
8 Hwanwoong is the founder of the Baedal nation, but is also used to represent the rulers in the Baedal nation.
9 Cheonggu is considered as Shandong in China.
10 CheonBoo and Ihn may represent a mirror, a drum and a sword.
11 These tasks may be concerned with agriculture, life, disease, punishment, goodness and vice.
12 Baedal had continued from 3898 BCE to 2333 BCE. Baedal is the second nation of Korea after the destruction of the Hwan nation. Because the capital city is Shinshee, the Baedal is occasionally called the Shinshi nation
13 Shinshi is the capital city of Baedal. But, Shinshee is also used to represent the founder of Baedal in other history books because the family name of the founder is Shinshee.
14 A Woong tribe is considered as a descendant from the god of the earth. This implies that Baedal is a nation that is established by the descendants from the gods of the heaven and earth.
15 Chiwoo-Cheonwang is the fourteenth Hwanwoong in Baedal nation, and his name is JaojiCheonwang means the emperor from heaven. Chinese name of Chiwoo is Chi You. Chinese says that Chiwoo was their mythical king of Hmong nation, and his appearance was half giant, half bull with the front of his head covered with (or made of) iron. Because Chiwoo could deal with copper and steel, and he made an iron helmet, Chinese history books describe such like that. However, Chiwoo, more correctly Jaoji Hwanwoong, is definitely the king of Baedal nation. Refer to Record of Baedal in Unknown Records of Korea for details.
16 Dangun is the name of the first sovereign of the Ancient Joseon. Dan” means a birch tree in Korean, and “Gun” means a king. Because Dangun firstly descended to the place that has plentiful of birch trees, he is named as Dangun. Someone says that the Korean pronunciation of the corresponding word to a birch tree is similar as the Korean pronunciation of the corresponding word to brightness, thus the first emperor was named Dangun because most of people considered themselves as the descendants of the sun at the ancient times. After the death of the first emperor of Ancient JoseonDangun is used to represent the rulers.
17 The mountain Boolham is considered as the mountain Wanda in Heilongjiang Province at China.
18 Guhwan means literally nine tribes of Hwan because “Gu” means nine in Korean language, and is traditionally used to represent the race of Korean. Other names also used such as Guryeo (구려九黎), Guyi (구이九夷), and Koryeo (고려高黎 or 高麗),Buyeo (부여夫餘) and Bulyeo (불여不黎). All of these are seemed to be the transliteration of Korean language into Chinese character. The Chinese history book of Shiji (史記), which is written by Sima Zhen (司馬貞, 618 – 907 CE), utilizes the homonym of Guyi(九夷) such as Guyi (狗夷) to disparage Korean, and then uses the synonym of Guyi (狗夷) such as Gyungyi (견이犬夷), Gyungyoong (견융犬戎). Gu () and Gyun () mean dogs.
19 Ancient Joseon or Kojoseon had continued from 2333 BCE to 238 BCE.
20 Buyeo (부여夫餘) or Bul-ryeo (불려不黎): Ancient Korean designated themselves as one who descended from heaven. “Bu ()” or “Bul ()” was used to represent an emperor from heaven, and the “Yeo ()” or “Ryeo ()” was used to represent the people. Thus, Buyeo may mean the nation that is governed by rulers from heaven. Sometimes, Hwan (), Ko (), Myoung () were used instead of “Bu.” Ryeo (麗 or ), Ri () and Yeo (여 余) were used instead of “Yeo ().”
21 Haemosoo had founded Koguryeo (고구려高九黎) at 239 BCE. “Ko()” is added to “Guryeo(九黎) as prefix to represent the emperor from Heaven. Hereafter, the Koguryeo that is founded by Haemosoo will be called Haemosoo-Koguryeo” or “Bukbuyeo (북부여北夫餘).” The history of Haemosoo-Koguryeo is recorded in the First Volume of Bukbuyeo Record.
22 Wiman was a general of Yan. After Wiman stole the area of Beonhan, the state of Beonhan was called Wiman Joseon (194 BCE – 108 BCE)
23 Joon was the last emperor of Beonjoseon or Beonhan. His family name was Ki, so he was also called Kijoon.
24 Beonhan was one of the states of Ancient Joseon.
25 Ancient Joseon was a united nation of three states such as Jinjoseon, Majoseon and Beojoseon. Jinjoseon, Majoseon and Beojoseon are also called JinhanMahan and Beonhan, respectively. The territory of Jinhan was most of Manchuria, the territory ofMahan was the Korean peninsula, and the territory of Beonhan was around Liaoning Province in China.
26 Hansoo can be considered as the Han River in Korea. Many leaders of Jinhan might fled to Mahan after the establishment of Haemosoo-Koguryeo or Bukbuyeo at 239 BCE, and many people and leaders of Beonhan might fled to Mahan after destruction ofBeonhan by Wiman at 194 BCE.
27 Woogeo was the last king of Wiman Joseon, and he was a grandson of Wiman. In many Chinese history books, Wiman Joseon is just called Joseon, and Jinjoseon is just called as Jin or Jinguk. So, the Chinese history books usually say that the king of Wu inHan dynasty destroyed the entire Ancient Joseon, but it is not true because Jinjoseon was succeeded by Haemosoo-Koguryeo, and the exact destruction year of Mahan is not be known.
28 Kodoomak was also called Dongmyoung.
29 Kodumak had conquered Haemosoo-Koguryeo at 86 BCE, and this nation is called Dongmyoung-Koguryeo. The history of Dongmyoung-Koguryeo after 86 BCE is described in the Second Volume of Bukbuyeo Record. The emperor of Haemosoo-Koguryeo and his followers moved eastward, and established Dongbuyeo or Gaseobwon-Buyeo, and the history of this nation is described in Gaseobwon-Buyeo Record.
30 Kochoomo was the founder of Koguryeo or Koryeo.
31 Koguryeo had continued from 37 BC to 668 CE, and the history of this nation is described in Records of Koguryeo.
32 Damool means the recovery of everything to the original condition
33 Heaven Mountain is considered as the Baekdu Mountain at North Korea.
34 The Panaryoo mountain is considered as the Wanda mountain in Heilongjiang Province at China.
35 Ree is the unit of length. Currently, 1 ree is equal to 0.393 km. But, it is thought that 1 ree might be less than 0,393 km at ancient times.
36 Taebaek is considered as the Baekdu Mountain at North Korea.
37 Traditionally, the ancient nations of Korean had had the five ministers, which are called Ohga as Korean language. The Five Ministers are Wooga, Maga, Guga, Jeoga and Yangga.
38 It is occasionally said that Bangogahan is the ancestor of Chinese.
39 Cheonwang means an emperor who governs the sons of Heaven.
40 It is said that people called themselves as Hwan.
41 The Ancient Joseon was a united nation, which was composed of three states such as MahanJinhan and Beonhan.
42 It may refer to Pyohoon Samseong Milgi, but it does not exist currently.
43 The tenth emperor of Baedal nation
44 Shennong is a legendary emperor of China and culture hero of Chinese mythology who is believed to have lived some 5000 years ago and who taught ancient China the practices of agriculture.
45 It is considered to be located in Shandong peninsula in China.
46 Huangdi Xuanyuan is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. He is said to have reigned from 2698 BC to 2599 BC.
47 Takrok in Korean or Zhuolu in Chinese is located at the province of Hebei in China.
48 Diku-Gaoxin was a great grandson of Huang Di.
49 Cangjie was claimed to be an historian of the Yellow Emperor and the inventor of the Chinese characters.
50 Shiji is a Chinese history book written by Sima Qian.
51 The first ruler’s of the Ancient Joseon is Dangun. However, Dangun is used to the designation name of the rulers after the first.
52 Imgeum may mean a benign sovereign.
53 This satellite nation may be located at the province of Shandong of China.
54 Yushun was a legendary leader of ancient China, among the Three August Ones and the Five Emperors.
55 Hereupon, Dangun will be used as the designation name of rulers of Ancient Joseon.
56 It is considered as the Nokdo character that was invented in the Baedal nation. The Nokdo character imitates a footprint of a deer.
57 Yeolyang is currently Liaodong peninsula in China.
58 Xiongnu are nomadic people of Central Asia from 5 BCE to 5 CE. They are also known as a similar race with Hun.
59 The location of the Woosoo nation is considered to be the area of Songhua River of current China.
60 The three islands are the Japanese Islands.
61 The Xia nation is the first kingdom of China.
62 Salsoo is considered to be located at Luan River in current China.
63 Xiang is the fifth king of the Xia nation of China.
64 It seems that Osagoo had no son because Yangga became an emperor. Yangga is one of the Five Ministers.
65 Songyang is an old name of Kangdong county Pyungyang province in current North Korea.
66 The Daebak Mountain is located at Moonheung, Kangdong county, Pyungyang province in current North Korea. A royal mausoleum of Dangun has been found in the Daebak mountain.
67 Wooga is one of the Five Ministers.
68 Two suns may represent the sun and Dangun.
69 Yut is a traditional Korean game. It is said that the terms used in the Yut game have a origin from the Five Ministers.


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